Mary II Stuart (Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland)

Biographical Text

Mary was a daughter of the Stuart king James II of England, Scotland, and Ireland and his first wife Anne Hyde. As a result of her marriage in 1677 to her cousin, Stadtholder Willem III of Oranje-Nassau, she became Princess of Orange [Oranje] and Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland in 1689. Through her support of the intervention of Willem III in English politics and her role in England following the Glorious Revolution of 1688, Mary helped shape the history of both the Dutch Republic and England: the revolution in England proved to be sustainable and the alliance of the Dutch Republic with England was to forge an important buffer against the French.

The combination of an unsettled childhood, an early marriage to an all-too-infrequently accessible husband that propelled her into an unfamiliar environment, several miscarriages which resulted in childlessness, and conflicts with her Catholic father made her private life particularly stressful. During politically turbulent times, however, Mary transformed from a mentally fragile young woman into a strong and forceful personality. She found both protection and guidance within the Protestant faith, and diverted herself with creative pastimes such as architecture and garden design.

While the metadata of much of her correspondence remains to be collated, the majority of the letters at present in this catalogue were received by Mary during the period between 1677 and 1689 when she lived in the Dutch Republic.

Bibliography

  • M. Bentink, ed., Lettres et Mémoires de Marie Reine d’Angleterre, Épouse de Guillaume III (The Hague, 1880).
  • M. Bowen, The third Mary Stuart. Mary of York, Orange & England (London, 1929).
  • T. Claydon, William III and the Godly Revolution (Cambridge, 1996).
  • R. Fruin, ‘Maria de gemalin van Prins Willem III’, Verspreide geschriften, 5 (The Hague, 1902).
  • E. Gregg, Queen Anne (London, 1980).
  • E. Hamilton, William’s Mary. A biography of Mary II (London, 1972).
  • N. Japikse, Prins Willem III. De stadhouder-koning, 2 vols (Amsterdam, 1930–3).
  • F. J. L. Krämer, Maria II Stuart. Gemalin van Willem den Derden (Utrecht, 1890).
  • J. W. A. Naber, ‘Maria van Engeland 1662–1694’, in De vorstinnen van het Huis van Oranje-Nassau (Haarlem, 1898).
  • R. P. Maccubbin and M. Hamilton-Phillips, eds, The Age of William III and Mary II: Power, Politics and Patronage (Williamsburg, 1989).
  • L. Schwoerer, ed., The Revolution of 1688–1689: Changing Perspectives (Cambridge, 1992).
  • W. Troost, William III the Stadholder-king: A Political Biography (Farnham, 2005).
  • M. Waller, Ungrateful Daughters: the Stuart Princesses Who Stole Their Father’s Crown (London, 2002).
  • H. and B. van der Zee, William and Mary (London, 1973).
Mary II Stuart (Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland)

Dublin Core

Title

Mary II Stuart (Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland)

Description

Mary was a daughter of the Stuart king James II of England, Scotland, and Ireland and his first wife Anne Hyde. As a result of her marriage in 1677 to her cousin, Stadtholder Willem III of Oranje-Nassau, she became Princess of Orange [Oranje] and Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland in 1689.

Identifier

Birth Date

1662

Death Date

1694

Occupation

Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland; daughter of James II (1633–1701) and Anne Hyde (1637–1671); Princess of Orange.

Part of Collection

Citation

“Mary II Stuart (Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland),” The Wives of the Stadtholders: an exhibition, accessed October 19, 2021, http://emlo-portal.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/exhibition/sw/items/show/15.